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REVIEW  CAROTID STENTING AND ENDARTERECTOMY 

The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2017 February;58(1):35-48

DOI: 10.23736/S0021-9509.16.09771-8

Copyright © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Endovascular prevention and treatment of stroke related to extracranial carotid artery disease

Leonardo RANGEL-CASTILLA 1, 2, Gary B. RAJAH 2, Hakeem J. SHAKIR 1, 3, Jason M. DAVIES 1, 3, 4, Kenneth V. SNYDER 1, 3, 5, 6, Adnan H. SIDDIQUI 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, Elad I. LEVY 1, 3, 5, 7, L. Nelson HOPKINS 1, 3, 5, 7, 8

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 3 Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, NY, USA; 4 Department of Biomedical Informatics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 5 Department of Radiology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 6 Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 7 Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 8 Jacobs Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA


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Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the leading cause of premature mortality and morbidity worldwide for both men and women. Extracranial carotid artery stenosis/occlusion is responsible for approximately 11.5% of ischemic strokes, whereas extracranial large vessel disease comprises roughly 16.6% of ischemic strokes. Carotid artery disease has been the source of significant debate among neurovascular and cardiovascular specialists, as well as vascular surgeons, as to the best method of revascularization, surgical reconstruction versus endovascular recanalization. There are different treatment modalities and techniques related to AIS and extracranial carotid artery disease based on the different etiologies, and these include acute internal carotid artery occlusion (thrombectomy versus carotid stenting/angioplasty), tandem occlusions (stenting and thrombectomy), and non-emergent carotid stenting/angioplasty for chronic internal carotid artery stenosis. The continuing development of new endovascular technology has led to a major shift in treatment to a minimally invasive endovascular approach. Distal filter devices, proximal protection devices, balloon-guided catheters, open- or closed-cell stents, and flow-reversal stenting are some of the technologies that are now available. The latest treatment techniques, indications, and studies are discussed in this review.


KEY WORDS: Stroke - Endovascular procedures - Stents - Thrombectomy - Embolic protection devices

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