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REVIEW  LATEST FRONTIERS OF HEMODYNAMICS, IMAGING AND TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE VENOUS DISEASE 

Italian Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2018 June;25(2):176-89

DOI: 10.23736/S1824-4777.18.01341-4

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Imaging of extracranial obstructive venous disease

Dejan JAKIMOVSKI, Karen MARR, Robert ZIVADINOV

Department of Neurology, Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA


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The venous system of the head and neck generally consists of dural sinuses and cerebral veins that constitute two different vascular entities. The two cervical venous entities are not self-isolated and present with compensatory capabilities through complex connections within the craniocervical junction. This article summarizes the latest knowledge on the use of noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities in the detection of extracranial obstructive venous disease, intraluminal abnormalities, and collateral venous outflow. Moreover, it outlines the particular advantages and disadvantages of the imaging modalities at hand for detection of these abnormalities and review of the possible future directions of this field.


KEY WORDS: Cerebrovascular disorders - Diagnostic imaging - Review

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