Home > Journals > The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness > Past Issues > Articles online first > The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2022 Jul 11



Publishing options
To subscribe
Submit an article
Recommend to your librarian


Publication history
Cite this article as


Review Article   

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2022 Jul 11

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.22.14103-4


language: English

Effects of exercise training on inflammatory and cardiometabolic health markers in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Keyvan HEJAZI 1 , Alexei WONG 2

1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran; 2 Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, VA, USA

INTRODUCTION: The improvements in inflammation and cardiometabolic health play an important role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. However, the interactions between different exercise training (ET) modalities with inflammatory and cardiometabolic biomarkers are not completely understood. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of ET on inflammatory and cardiometabolic health markers in overweight and obese adults.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science up to December 15, 2021. Thirty-five studies including 2,752 participants were included and analyzed using a random-effects model to estimate weighted mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The meta-analysis found that ET significantly (p<0.05) increased adiponectin (WMD: 0.72 μg/mL; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.84; SMD = 0.65) and maximal oxygen consumption levels (WMD: 5.26 mL.kg.min; 95% CI: 3.84, 6.69; SMD = 1.21). Moreover, ET significantly (p<0.05) reduced fasting insulin (WMD: -2.40 μIU/ml; 95% CI: -3.43 to -1.37; SMD = -0.87), fasting blood glucose (WMD: -5.41 mg/dl; 95% CI: -7.91, -2.91; SMD = -0.66), insulin resistance (WMD: -0.66; 95% CI: -1.08, -0.24; SMD = -0.66) and triglyceride levels (WMD: -10.88 mg/dL; 95% CI: -17.61, -4.15; SMD = -0.91). No significant changes were observed in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, leptin, C-reactive protein and cholesterol concentrations. Subgroup analysis by type of training indicated that aerobic and resistance exercise had the most consistent beneficial effects as compared to other modalities.
CONCLUSIONSː Our findings suggest that ET may improve inflammation and cardiometabolic health in overweight and obese adults. Aerobic and resistance training appear to be more beneficial for improving adiponectin, fasting insulin, fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance index and triglyceride levels as compared to other exercise modalities. Further long-term studies are required to confirm and expand on these findings.

KEY WORDS: Inflammation; Exercise training; HOMA-IR; Meta-analysis

top of page