Home > Journals > The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness > Past Issues > Articles online first > The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2021 Oct 19



To subscribe PROMO
Submit an article
Recommend to your librarian


Publication history
Cite this article as



The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2021 Oct 19

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12035-3


language: English

Aerobic and combined water-based trainings in older women: effects on strength and cardiorespiratory outcomes

Mariana S. HÄFELE , Cristine L. ALBERTON, Gustavo Z. SCHAUN, Gabriela N. NUNES, Bruno BRASIL, Melissa M. ALVES, Luana S. ANDRADE, Stephanie S. PINTO

Physical Education School, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas, RS, Brazil


BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the muscular and cardiorespiratory adaptations of two water-based training programs in older women.
METHODS: Volunteers were divided between a water-based aerobic training (WBA; n=13), water-based combined training (WBC; n=11) or an active control group (CG; n=9) and those assigned to WBA and WBC exercised twice a week for 12 weeks. All outcomes of interest were assessed prior and after the intervention. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), and Bonferroni post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Aerobic training was performed at the percentage of the heart rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold and resistance training during WBC was performed with sets at maximal effort.
RESULTS: Improvements were observed for the maximal knee extension dynamic strength (1RM) and oxygen uptake (VO2) corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold for both WBA and WBC (1RM: 16 ± 12% vs. 15 ± 16%; VO2: 20 ± 24% vs. 23 ± 13%, respectively), whereas VO2 peak improved in all three groups (WBA: 23 ± 21%; WBC: 18 ± 9%; CG: 7 ± 16%). No increase was found for horizontal chest press 1RM (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that WBA, WBC and CG are effective to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, however, only water-based training programs (WBA and WBC) appear capable of improving the maximal strength of the lower limbs.

KEY WORDS: Aging; Oxygen consumption; Muscle strength

top of page