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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2021 Feb 22

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.21.11991-7


language: English

Effects of an experimental taper period on male and female swimmers

Tarine BOTTA de ARRUDA 1 , Carlos A. KALVA-FILHO 2, Fabio MILIONI 3, Ricardo A. BARBIERI 1, 4, Ronaldo BUCKEN GOBBI 1, Marcelo PAPOTI 1

1 Laboratory of Aquatic Activities, School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirão Preto (EEFERP-USP), University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo - Brazil; 2 Human Movement Research Laboratory (MOVI-LAB), São Paulo State University (UNESP), Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil; 3 Laboratory of Physiology and Human Performance, São Paulo State University (UNESP), São Paulo State University, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil; 4 Estácio University Center of Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil


BACKGROUND: This study investigated the possible influence of the gender on the responses of swimmers during a taper period (TP).
METHODS: Ten males (19 ± 3 years and 73.5 ± 7.8 kg) and ten females (17 ± 2 years and 54.7 ± 7.2 kg) swimmers were submitted to a 12-week training, followed by three weeks of the TP. Before and after the TP we evaluated the performance at 100 m freestyle, stroke parameters and lactacidemic responses; lactate minimum intensity (LMI) and stroke parameters associated with LMI and the propulsive force in tethered swimming. TP consisted of 14 sessions with mean volume 2,253 ± 1,213 m•session-1 at an intensity below than the LMI, 1,730 ± 327 m•session-1 at an intensity near the LMI and 1,530 ± 1,019 m•session-1 at an intensity above the LMI.
RESULTS: Significant effects of the genders were observed for LMI and stroke parameters (p-value < 0.001 and η2 > 0.52 [large]) and propulsive force (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.59 [large]). However, no significant effects of the TP were identified in the performance of the 100 m freestyle (p-value = 0.66; η2 = 0.006 [small]), propulsive force (p-value > 0.63; η2 < 0.006 [small]), aerobic parameters (LMI: p-value = 0.32 and η2 = 0.03 [small]) and mechanical parameters (p-value > 0.23; η2 = 0.01 [small]). Nonetheless, the peak blood lactate concentrations were improved after TP (p-value = 0.014; η2 = 0.16 [large]), without significant interactions (p-value = 0.38; η2 = 0.02 [small]), as well as the mechanical parameters during maximum 100 m freestyle (p-value < 0.04 and η2 > 0.10 [medium]).
CONCLUSIONS: Hence, men and women presenting significantly different values in the age group studied, the responses observed after the TP investigated were the same independent of gender.

KEY WORDS: Gender difference; Anaerobic threshold; Swimming; Performance; Stroke; Science sports

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