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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2021 Feb 15

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12025-0

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Evidence that variations in pre-training hydration status are related to the frequency of endurance training in elite adolescent sprinters

Eon H. CAMPBELL 1 , Rachael IRVING 1, Shelly MCFARLANE 2, Lowell DILWORTH 3, Melanie POUDEVIGNE 4, Janel BAILEY 1

1 Biochemistry Section, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica; 2 Caribbean Institute for Health Research, The University of the West Indies at Mona, Mona, Jamaica; 3 Department of Pathology, The University of the West Indies at Mona, Mona, Jamaica; 4 Health and Fitness Management, Clayton State University, Morrow, GA, USA


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BACKGROUND: Although the effect of dehydration on performance is widely studied, limited data concerning the levels of risk training types pose to hydration status exists. This study sought to determine: (a) pre-training hydration status in adolescent sprinters relative to non-athletes, (b) changes in hydration markers across a season of adolescent sprinters relative to non-athletes, and (c) if frequency of training type explains unique variance in hydration.
METHODS: Hydration [via pre-training urine osmolality (UOsm) and thirst perception (TP)], daily water intake (TWI) [via 24-h food/fluid diaries] and frequencies of resistance, endurance and sprint training types (via training regime questionnaires) were assessed in 26 sprinters (age: 15.6±1.9 years) and 26 non-athletes (age: 16.0±1.6 years), during 4 mesocycles [general (T1) and specific (T2) preparation; pre-competitive (T3) and peaking (T4) phases], over 26 weeks.
RESULTS: Most athletes (62%-81%) and non-athletes (73%-92%) were underhydrated (UOsm>700 mOsmol/kg) pre-training across the season, despite a low TP. There were significant time (p =.042) and group (p =.006) effects, and a main group by time interaction for UOsm (p =.006) but not TP across the season, after controlling for TWI. Greater UOsm (in mOsmol/kg) were observed during T1 (906.3±250.1) and T2 (934.5±257.0) compared to T3 (852.1±268.8) and T4 (854.2±218.8). There was no significant change across the season for non-athletes. Frequencies of endurance training were positively associated with UOsm and explained unique variances across the season (R2 range from 7%-16%).
CONCLUSIONS: Underhydration is high in the adolescent population. Training type may be related to the variations in hydration throughout a season, which may help to inform hydration practices of sprint athletes.


KEY WORDS: Underhydration; Hypohydration; Training types; Urine osmolality; Urine specific gravity

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