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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2020 Oct 22

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.20.11150-2


language: English

Changes in immunological parameters in ultramarathon runners depending on the duration of the load

Alexander L. PLAKIDA

Department of Physical Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine, Physical Training and Valeology, Odessa National Medical University, Odessa, Ukraine


BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been an increasing interest in long-distance running, not only to the classic arathon distances but also to an ultramarathon - 100 km, 250 km, and multi-day races. One of the most reactive body systems in conditions of prolonged muscular loads is the immune system. The work aimed to investigate the changes in immunological parameters in runners for extra-long distances of various durations.
METHODS: We examined 73 male athletes specializing in long-distance and ultra-long-distance running. The design of the survey included the study of immunological status during the marathon race, 100 km run, and six-day run. We studied the dynamics of leukocyte formula; subpopulations of lymphocytes; fractions of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgM, IgG; phagocytic activity.
RESULTS: During the marathon run, athletesʹ immunological changes are manifested by the development of neutrophilic leukocytosis with a decrease in the phagocytic activity of neutrophils. There was a sharp increase in the NLR and decrease in the LMR. A 100-km race caused a decrease in the absolute and relative number of T-lymphocytes. NLR increased almost ten times, and LMR, on the contrary, decreased nearly five times. On the first day of the 6-days run, there is a sharp increase in NLR and a decrease in LMR, after which there is a relative stabilization of both indicators.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in immunological parameters during jogging are closely related to the duration of the load. The most pronounced changes are observed on the part of neutrophils and lymphocytes.

KEY WORDS: Ultra-long-distance running; Immunology; Lymphocytes; Immunoglobulins

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