Home > Journals > The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness > Past Issues > Articles online first > The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 Dec 01



Publication history
Cite this article as


A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology

Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,215



The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 Dec 01

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.08066-5


language: English

Adaptive thermogenesis and changes in body composition and physical fitness in army cadets

Juliano H. BORGES 1 , Gary R. HUNTER 2, Analiza M. SILVA 3, Vagner X. CIROLINI 1, Raquel D. LANGER 1, Mauro A. PÁSCOA 1, Gil GUERRA Jr. 1, 4, Ezequiel M. GONÇALVES 1

1 Growth and Development Laboratory, Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2 Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3 Exercise and Health Laboratory, CIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal; 4 Department of Pediatrics, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil


BACKGROUND: To analyze the association between a 34-week military training on body composition, physical fitness and compensatory changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) recognized as adaptive thermogenesis (AT). We also explored if regional body composition changes were related to AT.
METHODS: Twenty-nine male army cadets, aged 17 to 22 years were tested at baseline (T0) and after 34-weeks military training (T1). Physical training was performed 5 days/week during 90 minutes/day. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; physical fitness by 3000-m running, pull-up, 50-m freestyle swimming, push-up and sit-up tests; REE measured by indirect calorimetry (REEm) and predicted from fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and ethnicity at T0 (REEp). %AT was calculated using values at T1: 100(REEm/REEp-1); and AT (kcal/day) as %AT/100 multiplied by baseline REEm.
RESULTS: Physical training was associated with increases of lean soft tissue (LST) (∆1.2±1.3 kg), FM (∆1.4±1.3 kg), FFM (∆1.2±1.3 kg) and physical fitness (P<0.01), but no REE changes (∆59.6±168.9 kcal/day) and AT were observed (P>0.05). Though a large variability was found, AT was partially explained by trunk LST (r2=0.17, P=0.027). Individuals showing a higher AT response demonstrated a higher trunk LST increase (∆0.8±0.7 kg, P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The military training increased LST, FM, FFM and physical fitness. Though no mean changes in AT occurred, a large individual variability was observed with some participants increasing REE beyond the expected body composition changes, suggesting a spendthrift phenotype. Changes of trunk LST may play an important role in the AT response observed in these individuals.

KEY WORDS: Army soldier - Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry - Energy metabolism - Indirect calorimetry - Metabolic adaptation

top of page

Publication History

Article first published online: December 01, 2017
Manuscript accepted: November 30, 2017
Manuscript revised: November 9, 2017
Manuscript received: August 16, 2017

Cite this article as

Borges JH, Hunter GR, Silva AM, Cirolini VX, Langer RD, Páscoa MA, et al. Adaptive thermogenesis and changes in body composition and physical fitness in army cadets. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017 Dec 01. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.08066-5

Corresponding author e-mail