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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS

A Journal on Applied Physiology, Biomechanics, Preventive Medicine,
Sports Medicine and Traumatology, Sports Psychology


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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 Sep 22

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07828-8

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Acute and overuse injuries in elite archers

Claudia K. NIESTROJ 1, Volker SCHÖFFL 2, 3, 4, Thomas KÜPPER 1, 4

1 Institute of Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; 2 Department of Sports Medicine, Sports Orthopaedics, Klinikum Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany; 3 Department of Trauma Surgery, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; 4 Union Internationale des Associations d’Alpinisme, Medical Commission (UIAA MedCom), Bern, Switzerland


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BACKGROUND: To evaluate type and incidence of acute and overuse injuries in high level European and German competitive archers.
METHODS: Participants of the German National Indoor Championship (DM) 2012 in Solingen, Germany, and European Outdoor Championship (EM) 2012 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, participated in the study. The design was a retrospective cohort study performed by a questionnaire. Data obtained included standard personal data (age, gender), training habits, draw weight, competition experience, and detailed data about acute and overuse injuries that occurred during the entire sporting career of the archers. Data was analysed with descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests.
RESULTS: 62 archers joined the study (40 DM, 22 EM). There was about same sporting experience in both groups, although a tendency to more experience in the EM group could be shown. 52 overuse and 6 acute injuries were reported. Overuse injuries were located mainly in the shoulder (n=27, 52.9 %), more precisely in the drawing arm shoulder (64.7 %). The second most overuse injuries were in the arms (n=12, 23.5 %), mainly the bow arm (66.7 %). Overuse injuries mainly represent damage of tendons, ligaments and articulations (67.9 %). Overall in the EM group significantly less overuse injuries occurred. Acute injuries were rare, occurred mostly in the arm (66.7 %) and were mainly caused by failure of equipment (83.3%). They occurred only in the DM group. All acute arm injuries were hematoma. Both acute and overuse injuries were not severe. A rate of 0.00536 acute and overuse injuries per 1000 hours was calculated. Occurrence and localisation of overuse injuries in archery are caused by specific repetitive movements under loads. Inaccurate technique is one of the major risk factors for overuse injuries.
CONCLUSIONS: To prevent overuse injuries, archers should focus on perfect shooting technique as well as adequate strength, which includes stabilizing trunk muscles. To prevent acute injuries based on equipment failure, equipment must be well maintained and checked before and after each training and competition. Safety equipment should be worn by all athletes.


KEY WORDS: Archery - Injury - Shoulder pain - Preventive care

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Publication History

Article first published online: September 22, 2017
Manuscript accepted: September 13, 2017
Manuscript revised: August 28, 2017
Manuscript received: May 29, 2017

Cite this article as

Niestroj CK, Schöffl V, Küpper T. Acute and overuse injuries in elite archers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017 Sep 22. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07828-8

Corresponding author e-mail

tkuepper@ukaachen.de