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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  SPORT CARDIOLOGY 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2020 June;60(6):926-33

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10279-2

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, and ambulatory blood pressure in adolescents

Eunduck PARK 1 , Devin C. VOLDING 2, 3, Wendell C. TAYLOR 4, Wenyaw CHAN 4, Janet C. MEININGER 4, 5

1 Harris College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 2 Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA; 3 Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX, USA; 4 School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 5 Cizik School of Nursing, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA



BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) and adiposity (Body Mass Index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]) with ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and tested the moderating effect of adiposity on the association between fitness and ABP.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 370 adolescents aged 11-16 years. Fitness was assessed by a height-adjusted step test and estimated by heart rate recovery, defined as the difference between peak heart rate during exercise and heart rate two minutes postexercise. Adiposity was measured using dichotomized values for percentiles of BMI (≥85th) and WC (≥50th). ABP was measured every 30-60 minutes over 24 hours on a school day. Mixed-effects regression analysis was used.
RESULTS: Each unit increase in fitness was associated with a decrease of systolic blood pressure (SBP) [-0.058 mmHg, P=0.001] and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) [-0.043 mmHg, P<0.001] after adjustment for WC and covariates. Each unit increase in fitness was associated with a decrease in SBP [-0.058 mmHg, P=0.001] and DBP [-0.045 mmHg, P<0.001] after adjustment for BMI and covariates. Fitness and BMI≥85th percentile (or WC ≥ 50th percentile) interactions were not associated with ABP after adjustment for covariates.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate a small but statistically significant inverse effect of fitness on ABP in adolescents. No evidence of a modifying effect of adiposity on this association suggesting that fitness and weight management have essential roles for maintaining lower ABP in adolescents.


KEY WORDS: Cardiorespiratory fitness; Blood pressure monitoring, ambulatory; Adiposity; Hypertension; Adolescent

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