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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2020 April;60(4):501-9

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.19.10274-5

Copyright © 2019 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Does the inclusion of ballistic exercises during warm-up enhance short distance running performance?

Maria H. GIL 1, 2, Henrique P. NEIVA 1, 2, Ana R. ALVES 2, 3, António C. SOUSA 1, 2, Pedro DUARTE-MENDES 4, 5, Mário C. MARQUES 1, 2, Daniel A. MARINHO 1, 2

1 Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal; 2 Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development (CIDESD), Covilhã, Portugal; 3 Department of Arts, Humanities and Sports, Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Beja, Portugal; 4 Department of Sport and Well-Being, Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Castelo Branco, Portugal; 5 SHERU - Sport, Health and Exercise Research Unit, Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Castelo Branco, Portugal



BACKGROUND: Warm-up is considered essential to optimize running performance, but little is known about the effect of specific warm-up tasks, specifically in the real competitive context. The current study aimed to verify the acute effects of a warm-up including ballistic exercises in 30m running performance. In addition, a second 30m trial was assessed to better understand the warm-up effects in training/competition.
METHODS: Twenty-two men (19.32±1.43 years-old) randomly completed the time-trials on separate days and after a typical warm-up (WU), a WU complemented with ballistic exercises (postactivation potentiation [PAP]) or no warm-up (NWU). Biomechanical, physiological and psychophysiological variables were assessed.
RESULTS: The participants were 1.9% faster in the first 30m sprint after WU compared with NWU, mainly increased performance in the first 15m (P=0.03, ES=0.48). WU resulted in greater stride length in the last 15m of the first sprint. PAP did not differ from NWU and WU, despite eight participants performed better after this warm-up.
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the positive effects of warm-up for sprinting, despite failed to evidence positive effects when ballistic exercises are included. In addition, the influence of warm-up in the running technique was highlighted by the changes in the running kinematics and a need for individualization of warm-up procedures.


KEY WORDS: Warm-up exercise; Athletic performance; Physiology

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