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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2019 October;59(10):1601-7

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.19.09865-7

Copyright © 2019 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Rain exacerbates cold and metabolic strain during high-intensity running

Ryo ITO 1 , Naoyuki YAMASHITA 2, Kohei ISHIHARA 3, Takaaki MATSUMOTO 3

1 School of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Daido University, Nagoya, Japan; 2 Faculty of Arts and Sciences Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan; 3 Graduate School of Health and Sport Sciences, Chukyo University, Toyota, Japan



BACKGROUND: Outdoor exercise often proceeds in rainy conditions. However, there are very few studies reporting the physiological effects of cold with rain or wet-cold exposure on humans during exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rain on physiological responses during running exercise at 80% V̇Omax in the cold.
METHODS: Twelve healthy men (age: 21.7±3.3 years; height: 1.760±0.085 m; body weight: 68.8±7.1 kg; maximal oxygen consumption: 67.3±5.00 mL/kg/min) exercised on a treadmill at 80% V̇Omax intensity for 60 minutes with rain (RAIN) or not (CON) at 5 °C.
RESULTS: Rectal temperature was significantly lower in RAIN than in CON at 10, 40, 50, and 60 minutes (P<0.05). Mean weighted skin temperature was significantly lower in RAIN than in CON during exercise (P<0.05). Oxygen consumption and rating of perceived exertion were significantly higher in RAIN than in CON at 50 and 60 minutes (P<0.05). Plasma lactate was significantly higher in RAIN than in CON at 10 minutes and from 40 to 60 minutes (P<0.05). Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in RAIN than in CON at 10 minutes and from 40 to 60 minutes (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rain increased heat loss during the early phase of exercise in the cold, then heat production increased and transiently suppressed cold stress. However, with time, body heat loss intensified due to increasing wet area, and then energy expenditure and plasma lactate increased due to cold stress. Therefore, rain may decrease exercise performance and affect sport safety.


KEY WORDS: Body temperature regulation; Energy metabolism; Cold temperature; Hypothermia

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