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REVIEW  EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2019 May;59(5):868-79

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.18.08771-6

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Outdoor physical activity bears multiple benefits to health and society

Giorgio MANFERDELLI 1, Antonio LA TORRE 1, 2 , Roberto CODELLA 1, 3

1 Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, School of Exercise Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 2 IRCSS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy; 3 Metabolism Research Center, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy



INTRODUCTION: Cutting-edge technologies and the rapid urbanization have led to several advantages for mankind and society. However such benefits have been accompanied with the alarming diffusion of sedentary lifestyle disorders, metabolic diseases, major depression and socialization problems, affecting global economy dramatically. The pandemic expansion of chronic diseases is associated with physical inactivity. During the last decade, numerous cities and organizations worldwide have started to adopt strategies aimed at improving outdoor physical activity levels in city residents.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review focusing on the effects of regular outdoor sports and physical activities across all ages was conducted through multiple databases, according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) standards.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Performing outdoor sports and physical activities may bear social, psychological and physiological benefits. Preventive effects are similarly documented in youth and seniors towards several morbid conditions: vitamin D deficiency, multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis and myopia.
CONCLUSIONS: Giving the beneficial effects of outdoor sports and physical activities, promotion strategies should be strongly advocated and developed nationally and globally. Likewise, dedicated research areas should inspire guidelines for the promotion of various outdoor activities - a good practice for the social scenario and the healthcare system.


KEY WORDS: Exercise - Environment and public health - Urbanization

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