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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  EXERCISE AND SPORT CARDIOLOGY 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2018 October;58(10):1537-43

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07142-0

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state aerobic exercise

Daniel COOVERT, LeVisa D. EVANS, Steven JARRETT, Carla LIMA, Natalia LIMA, Alvaro N. GUROVICH

Applied Medicine Research Center, Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Health and Human Services, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN, USA


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BACKGROUND: Endothelial shear stress (ESS) is a physiological stimulus for vascular homeostasis, highly dependent on blood flow patterns. Exercise-induced ESS might be beneficial on vascular health. However, it is unclear what type of ESS aerobic exercise (AX) produces. The aims of this study are to characterize exercise-induced blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state AX. We expect blood flow pattern during exercise will be intensity-dependent and bidirectional.
METHODS: Six college-aged students (2 males and 4 females) were recruited to perform 2 exercise tests on cycle-ergometer. First, an 8-12-min incremental test (test 1) where oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and blood lactate (La) were measured at rest and after each 2-min step. Then, at least 48-hr. after the first test, a 3-step steady state exercise test (test 2) was performed measuring VO2, HR, BP, and La. The three steps were performed at the following exercise intensities according to La: 0-2 mmol/L, 2-4 mmol/L, and 4-6 mmol/L. During both tests, blood flow patterns were determined by high-definition ultrasound and Doppler on the brachial artery. These measurements allowed to determine blood flow velocities and directions during exercise.
RESULTS: On test 1 VO2, HR, BP, La, and antegrade blood flow velocity significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, P<0.05). Retrograde blood flow velocity did not significantly change during test 1. On test 2 all the previous variables significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that exercise-induced ESS might be increased in an intensity-dependent way and blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state exercises include both antegrade and retrograde blood flows.


KEY WORDS: Exercise - Endothelial cells - Blood flow velocity

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