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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2018 January-February;58(1-2):135-49

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06806-7


language: English

The efficacy and characteristics of warm-up and re-warm-up practices in soccer players: a systematic review

Amri HAMMAMI 1 , James ZOIS 2, Maamer SLIMANI 3, Mark RUSSEL 4, Ezdine BOUHLEL 1

1 Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine Ibnjazzar, Sousse, Tunisia; 2 School of Sport and Exercise Science, Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Learning (ISEAL), Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; 3 Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Bizerte, Tunisia; 4 School of Social and Health Sciences, Leeds Trinity University, Horsforth, UK


INTRODUCTION: This review aimed 1) to evaluate the current research that examines the efficacy of warm-up (WU) and re-warm-up (RWU) on physical performance; and 2) to highlight the WU and RWU characteristics that optimise subsequent performance in soccer players.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A computerized search was performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar (from 1995 to December 2015) for English-language, peer-reviewed investigations using the terms “soccer” OR “football” AND “warm-up” OR “stretching” OR “post-activation potentiation” OR “pre-activity” OR “re-warm-up” AND “performance” OR “jump” OR “sprint” OR “running”.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twenty seven articles were retrieved. Particularly, 22 articles examined the effects of WU on soccer performance and 5 articles focused on the effects of RWU. Clear evidence exists supporting the inclusion of dynamic stretching or postactivation potentiation-based exercises within a WU as acute performance enhancements were reported (pooled estimate changes of +3.46% and +4.21%, respectively). The FIFA 11+ WU also significantly increases strength, jump, speed and explosive performances (changes from 1% to 20%). At half-time, active RWU protocols including postactivation potentiation practices and multidirectional speed drills attenuate temperature and performance reductions induced by habitual practice. The data obtained in the present review showed that the level of play did not moderate the effectiveness of WU and RWU on soccer performance.
CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrated that a static stretching WU reduced acute subsequent performance, while WU activities that include dynamic stretching, PAP-based exercises, and the FIFA 11+ can elicit positive effects in soccer players. The efficacy of an active RWU during half-time is also justified.

KEY WORDS: Muscle stretching exercises - Soccer - Athletic performance

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