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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2003 June;43(2):189-201

Copyright © 2009 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

The effects of various therapeutic measures on shoulder strength and muscle soreness after baseball pitching

Yanagisawa O. 1, Miyanaga Y. 2, Shiraki H. 2, Shimojo H. 2, Mukai N. 2, Niitsu M. 3, Itai Y. 3

1 Doctoral Program in Medical Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan 2 Institute of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan 3 Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan


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Aim. ­This ­study was ­intended as an inves­ti­ga­tion of the ­effects of var­ious ther­a­peutic meas­ures on the ­shoulder ­strength and ­muscle sore­ness ­after base­ball ­pitching.
­Methods. Experi­mental ­design: par­tic­i­pants ­threw 98 ­pitches in a sim­u­lated ­single ­game. The ­mode of the ther­a­peutic meas­ures ­after ­pitching ­were clas­si­fied ­into 4 ­groups; the con­trol ­group (CON), the ice treat­ment ­group (IT), the ­light ­shoulder exer­cise ­group (LSE) and the ice treat­ment ­with LSE ­group (ILSE). ­Each ther­a­peutic ­measure was ­applied to the dom­i­nant ­shoulder imme­di­ately ­after ­pitching. Par­tic­i­pants: ­7 ­healthy, ­skilled base­ball ­pitchers. Meas­ures: ­both ­shoulder ­strength and ­muscle sore­ness ­were meas­ured ­before ­pitching, imme­di­ately ­after ­pitching (­Post-P), at the ­time of the ther­a­peutic ­measure (­Post-TM), and 24 ­hours ­after ­pitching (­Post-24 h).
­Results. All 4 ­groups ­showed ­shoulder ­strength ­losses in ­shoulder abduc­tion, ­internal/­external rota­tion ­with no ­shoulder abduc­tion or ­with the ­shoulder ­abducted to 90° imme­di­ately ­after ­pitching. ­ILSE had ­greater ­recovery ­from ­Post-P ­values at ­Post-TM or ­Post-24 h ­than the ­other ­methods in all 5 ­shoulder ­strengths. On the ­other ­hand, the sore­ness in ­shoulder ­internal rota­tion was ­increased sig­nif­i­cantly ­from ­Post-P and con­tinued by ­Post-24 h. ­Both IT and ­ILSE had ben­e­fi­cial ­effects on ­reducing the ­shoulder ­muscle sore­ness at ­Post-TM or ­Post-24 h.
Con­clu­sion. The find­ings of ­this ­study sug­gested ­that ­ILSE was the ­optimal ther­a­peutic ­measure ­against ­decreased ­shoulder ­strength or ­increased ­shoulder ­muscle sore­ness ­resulting ­from the repet­i­tive base­ball ­pitching.

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