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Panminerva Medica 2021 Oct 05

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04517-1

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Metabolic syndrome and stone disease

Matteo SOLIGO 1 , Alessandro MORLACCO 2, Fabio ZATTONI 1, Claudio VALOTTO 1, Gioacchino DE GIORGI 1, Paolo BELTRAMI 2

1 Urology Clinic, Santa Maria della Misericordia Academic Medical Centre, Udine, Italy; 2 Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology - Urology Clinic, University of Padova, Padova, Italy


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Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of several pathological medical conditions including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance/diabetes, abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. In the last two decades, MetS has reached an epidemic stage, with an estimated prevalence in the range of 30% among the American adult population and a constant increase for all age categories. The incidence of nephrolithiasis between different geographical areas, ranging 1% to 13%; however, a worldwide increase has been recently reported. There is consistent evidence in the literature both about the association between metabolic syndrome/metabolic syndrome traits and kidney stones. Conversely, less is known about the underlying mechanisms and the complex interplay between metabolic syndrome traits. In this work, we sought to review the literature and to summarize the available evidence regarding the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis, the biological mechanisms linking metabolic syndrome and its trait to stone formation, and stone composition in individuals affected by metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, we would like to stress the concept of “appropriate” dietary habits and lifestyle as a key concept in the prevention of both metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis.


KEY WORDS: Metabolic syndrome; Kidney stone; Diabetes; Obesity; Hypertension

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