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Panminerva Medica 2021 Jan 25

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04134-3


language: English

Self-care and type 1 diabetes mellitus: systematic review of sex-related differences

Irene BARONI 1, Cristina ARRIGONI 2, Rosario CARUSO 3 , Arianna MAGON 3, Giulia VILLA 4, Duilio F. MANARA 5, Davide AUSILI 6, Federica DELLAFIORE 3

1 Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 2 Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Section of Hygiene, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3 Health Professions Research and Development Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy; 4 Unit of Urology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; 5 School of Nursing, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; 6 Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza, Italy

BACKGROUND: Self-care is associated with clinical outcomes of adults with T1DM. Some evidence highlighted significant sex-related differences in self-care behaviors in this population. However, the literature on this topic has not been synthesized before. This study aimed to summarize, critically review, and interpret evidence regarding sex-related differences in adults' self-care behaviors with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
METHODS: A systematic search of articles in the following databases was performed: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and CINAHL. Articles published from 2009 to 2019 were reviewed. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and flowchart were used to support the systematic review and study reporting. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data from the included articles.
RESULTS: From the 596 identified records, only 15 articles were included because pertinent to this review. Both females and males with T1DM must improve their ability to respond to signs and symptoms when they occur. Females are more likely to perform adequate blood glucose monitoring and adequate diet than males. In contrast, males are more likely to show more adequate levels of physical activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should pay greater attention to supporting females with T1DM to enhance their behaviors for maintaining an adequate health status and glycemic control. Likely, greater attention is required to sustain males to monitor changes in their signs and symptoms. Self-care management should be improved in both sexes.

KEY WORDS: Chronic illnesses; Type 1 diabetes mellitus; Sex-related differences; Self-care; Self-management; Systematic review

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