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Panminerva Medica 2022 June;64(2):265-73

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04284-1

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

How to fill the GAPS-I in secondary prevention: application of a strategy based on GLP1 analogues, antithrombotic agents, PCSK9 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors and immunomodulators

Pierre SABOURET 1 , Denis ANGOULVANT 2, Atul PATHAK 3, Marinos FYSEKIDIS 4, Giulia LATERRA 5, Francesco COSTA 5, Filippo ANGELINI 6, Pier P. BOCCHINO 6, Gilles MONTALESCOT 1, Giuseppe BIONDI-ZOCCAI 7, 8

1 INSERM UMRS_1166, Institute of Cardiology, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital (AP-HP), Sorbonne University, Paris, France; 2 Department of Cardiology, Loire Valley Cardiovascular Collaboration and EA4245, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de TOURS (CHRU), University of Tours, Tours, France; 3 Department of Diabetology, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny, France; 4 Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, INSERM 1048, Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France; 5 Department of Cardiology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 6 Division of Cardiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Città della Salute e della Scienza, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 7 Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University, Latina, Italy; 8 Mediterranea Cardiocentro, Naples, Italy



The continuous progress in cardiovascular risk prevention strategies has led to an impressive reduction in mortality and recurrent ischemic events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the control of several cardiovascular risk factors remains suboptimal in many CAD patients, with a high rate of recurrent events, underlying the need for more new prevention strategies. The GAPS-I (glucagon-like peptide 1 analogues, antithrombotic agents, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors, sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors and immunomodulators) strategy offers a promising potential in patients with a high-residual cardiovascular risk, who are frequently encountered in daily practice, by offering an individualized and structured approach to addressing their individual risk factors. The current review summarizes the evidence to date on each of its components, with respect to clinical outcomes and economic feasibility. The current evidence points to an efficacy of GAPS-I in reducing major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality, without a compromise on safety, albeit with the need for longer follow-up data.


KEY WORDS: Coronary artery disease; Heart disease risk factors; Cardiology

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