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REVIEW  CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION: COST-EFFECTIVE AND UNDERUTILIZED TOOLS 

Panminerva Med 2021 June;63(2):110-21

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.20.04241-X

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Smoking cessation: strategies and effects in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention

Stefan C. STANEL, Pilar RIVERA-ORTEGA

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Wythenshawe, UK



Although smoking is seen as a major health problem by most clinicians, few are able to provide evidence based smoking cessation interventions to their patients. Most individuals who smoke actually want to quit. Unfortunately, smoking is still seen as a vice or lifestyle choice, when it is actually a chronic disease which often starts in adolescence. Nicotine dependence is complex and must be quantified and treated differently for each patient in order to achieve high quit rates. Smoking has a significant impact on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Smoking cessation is a cost effective and often overlooked prevention tool which improves both short- and long-term outcomes. There are both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for smoking cessation that can be applied in clinical practice. Brief advice, specialized counseling including therapeutic education and behavioral support, and first- and second-line pharmacological interventions have been proven to be effective to help smokers quit. Although classically tobacco dependence was seen in relation to smoking, since the early 2000s, new nicotine delivery systems have appeared on the market, which despite being marketed as “healthy” alternatives, can often complicate smoking cessation efforts and act as gateway devices for new generations of smokers. In this article we review the results of several large systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which have shown that many cessation strategies are effective. We also offer practical tips on providing brief cessation advice and how pharmacotherapy can be prescribed and incorporated into clinical practice in both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention.


KEY WORDS: Tobacco use disorder; Smoking cessation; Cardiovascular diseases; Primary prevention; Secondary prevention

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