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REVIEW  CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: HOW TO AVOID OR DEFER DIALYSIS 

Panminerva Medica 2017 June;59(2):166-72

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.17.03293-1

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Use of ACE inhibition and blood pressure management in deferring dialysis initiation

Lucia DEL VECCHIO 1, Ugo TEATINI 2, Francesco LOCATELLI 1

1 Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, A. Manzoni Hospital, ASST Lecco, Lecco, Italy; 2 Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASST Rhodense, Garbagnate Milanese, Milan, Italy


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Elevated blood pressure is one of the most significant risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD); its treatment is a milestone in CKD management. While it is accepted that a stricter blood pressure control is indicated in patients with proteinuria or microalbuminuria, the exact degree of blood pressure reduction to be obtained in CKD patients is still under debate. Following more recent interpretation of old trials, a BP target for <140/90 mmHg is suggested for non-proteinuric CKD patients. In those with microalbuminuria/proteinuria, the ideal blood pressure target should be ≤130/80 mmHg. Recently, the SPRINT trial put new emphasis on a stricter blood pressure control, mainly from the cardiovascular point of view. The blockers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are recommended as first line treatment in all CKD hypertensive patients with micro or macroalbuminuria either diabetics or not. However, their nephroprotective efficacy is less relevant in non-proteinuric patients. The dual RAS blockade was proposed as an additional option. Despite a greater antiproteinuric effect, some large trials in patients at high cardiovascular risk did not demonstrate significant advantage on hard endpoint. Its use is now contraindicated in diabetic CKD patients. Given that RAS blockers can cause acute derangements in kidney function and hyperkalemia, caution is needed with their use, especially in frail and old patients with cardiovascular disease or in the presence of advanced CKD.


KEY WORDS: Chronic kidney disease - Proteinuria - Hypertension - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors - Angiotensin receptor blockers - Neuromuscular blockade

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