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PANMINERVA MEDICA

A Journal on Internal Medicine


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REVIEW  CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: HOW TO AVOID OR DEFER DIALYSIS


Panminerva Medica 2017 June;59(2):149-56

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.16.03288-2

Copyright © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Keto-analogues and essential aminoacids and other supplements in the conservative management of chronic kidney disease

Adamasco CUPISTI 1, Piergiorgio BOLASCO 2

1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2 Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL 8, Cagliari, Italy


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The manipulation of dietary protein intake is the mainstay of nutritional treatment of patients affected by chronic renal insufficiency, with the aim to reduce the burden of uremic toxins in order to decrease uremic toxicity and delay the need for dialysis. Consensus exists regarding the benefit of progressive protein restriction towards delaying the progression of renal failure and the need for dialysis, provided adequate energy supply. Although pivotal, protein restriction is only one aspect of the dietary management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Additional features, though strictly related to proteins, include modifications in sodium, phosphorus and energy intake, as well as in the source (animal or plant derived) of protein and lipids. In addition, supplements play an important role as a means to obtain both beneficial effects and nutritional safety in the renal patient. Essential amino acid and ketoacid mixtures are the most utilized types of supplementation in CKD patients on restricted protein regimens. The essential amino acids plus ketoacid supplementation is mandatory in conjunction with a very low-protein diet in order to assure an adequate essential amino acid supply. It is needed to safely implement a very low protein (and phosphorus) intake, so as to obtain the beneficial effect of a severe protein restriction while preventing malnutrition. Protein-free products and energy supplements are also crucial for the prevention of protein-energy wasting in CKD patients. Calcium, iron, native vitamin D and omega-3 PUFAs are other types of supplementation of potential benefits in the CKD patients on conservative management.


KEY WORDS: Dietary supplements - Renal insufficiency, chronic - Amino acids - Keto acids - Fatty acids - Calcium

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Publication History

Issue published online: February 10, 2017
Article first published online: December 21, 2016

Cite this article as

Cupisti A, Bolasco P. Keto-analogues and essential aminoacids and other supplements in the conservative management of chronic kidney disease. Panminerva Med 2017;59:149-56. DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.16.03288-2

Corresponding author e-mail

adamasco.cupisti@med.unipi.it