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Panminerva Medica 2017 March;59(1):67-75

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.16.03254-7

Copyright © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Current management of diabetic patients with kidney disease: a renal‑cardio‑endocrine perspective

Roberto PECOITS-FILHO 1, José FORTES 1, Aléxei VOLACO 1, Sergio VENCIO 2, Andrei C. SPOSITO 3

1 Division of Cardiology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil; 2 Federal University of Goiás-Postgraduate Program, Goiania, Brazil; 3 Cardiology Division, State University of Campinas, Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil


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Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most frequent and dangerous complications of diabetes mellitus type 2, affecting about one‑third of the patients. DKD results in increased hospitalizations and mortality rates, especially due to cardiovascular complications. This high burden of kidney disease is mainly due to the increasing complexity of in- outpatient care for patients with DM. There is a strikingly complex interaction of kidney dysfunction with many aspects of diabetes care, such as redefinition of targets of treatment, interactions of traditional and non‑traditional risk factors, and pharmacological issues related to pharmacokinetic and side effects of drugs. Particularly when not carefully managed, DKD increases the demand for renal replacement therapies, such as dialysis and kidney transplants. The combined economic and social costs of this disease are high and of concern to the world’s health systems. The main objective of this review is to provide insight into the recommendations for the evaluation and stratification of DKD and how the presence of kidney disease changes the optimal management of diabetic patients from an integrated renal‑cardio‑endocrine perspective.


KEY WORDS: Diabetes mellitus, type 2 - Diabetic nephropathies - Diabetes complications - Blood glucose self‑monitoring

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