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  ENDOSCOPIC SINUS AND SKULL BASE SURGERY 

Otorinolaringologia 2013 September;63(3):137-43

Copyright © 2013 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Choosing the best approach in 3D endoscopic skull base surgery

Khan O. H. 1, Raithatha R. 2, Anand V. K. 2, Schwartz T. H. 3

1 Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 2 Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 3 Department of Neurological Surgery Weill Cornell Medical College New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA


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Endoscopic endonasal approaches are increasingly applied to treat a variety of sinonasal, orbital and skull base pathologies. For the past two decades, two-dimensional (2D) endoscopic approaches have become more prevalent. With the advancement of endoscopic technology, three-dimensional (3D) endoscopes have emerged and augmented the spatial orientation of extracranial and intracranial anatomical structures. This article reviews the technical aspects and pertinent literature. Surgical decision making and indications for use of 3D endoscopes are also discussed.

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