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REVIEW  UPDATE ON DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF HYPERTHYROIDISM 

The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2021 June;65(2):157-71

DOI: 10.23736/S1824-4785.21.03350-1

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Graves’ orbitopathy: a multidisciplinary approach

Paolo P. LIMONE , Marco MELLANO, Maria G. RUO REDDA, Annalisa MACERA, Vittorio FERRERO, Stefano SELLARI FRANCESCHINI, Maurilio DEANDREA

Center for Thyroid Diseases, A.O. Ordine Mauriziano, Turin, Italy



Orbitopathy is the main extra thyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease. It is a very challenging condition, which requires a cooperation between many specialists (endocrinologists, ophthalmologists, radiologists, radiotherapeutic, orbital surgeons) for an optimal clinical management. An accurate diagnostic assessment is required, in order to plan an adequate treatment of Graves’ orbitopathy. Medical therapy, radiotherapy or surgery may be necessary to control the disease. In this review, the authors analyze the various therapeutic strategies, as well the more recent therapies based on pharmacologic immunomodulation.


KEY WORDS: Graves ophthalmopathy; Hyperthyroidism; Graves disease

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