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The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2006 December;50(4):363-70

Copyright © 2006 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Iodine-131 pharmacokinetics in patients on hemodialysis for end stage renal disease: clinical implications

Courbon F. 1, Caselles O. 2, Zerdoud S. 1, Duthil P. 1, Regis H. 1, Berry I. 1, Caron P. 3

1 Department of Nuclear Medicine University Hospital Toulouse Rangueil 1 Toulouse, France 2 Medical Physics Unit, Anticancer Center Claudius Regaud Toulouse Cedex, France 3 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases University Hospital Toulouse Rangueil 1, Toulouse France


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Aim. Curative treatment of thyroid cancer is a major issue for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing dialysis because they might not be included in a renal transplant protocol once they have overcome this disease. Since 131I is mostly eliminated by the kidneys, there is concern regarding the toxicity, efficacy and feasibility of 131I-therapy of anuric dialyzed patients.
Methods. This paper reports on 131I uptake and elimination from remnant thyroid tissue (T), salivary glands (SG), stomach (S) and blood, after administration of 3.7 GBq of 131I for 2 patients on twice weekly dialysis for ESRD.
Results. Compared to normal renal function patients, radio-iodine recirculation is observed, and SG and blood irradiation is about 6 times higher, but the dose delivered to the thyroid is not significantly enhanced. Dialysis removes more 131I from SG, S and blood than from T. Anticipated dialysis will reduce irradiation by 38% for the blood, 45% for SG and 34% for T.
Conclusion. Therefore, a higher 131I amount could then be used, providing that accurate personalized dosimetry is previously performed using 131I pharmacokinetic models. Concerning radiation protection issues, no significant dialysis equipment contamination is noted, and nurses and medical staff exposure remains below 0.2 mSv.

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