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Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences 2021 Apr 16

DOI: 10.23736/S0390-5616.20.05172-3

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Surgical revascularization of frontal areas in pediatric Moyamoya vasculopathy: a systematic review

Sina FINKENSTAEDT 1, 2, Lelio GUIDA 1, 3, Luca REGLI 1, Giuseppe ESPOSITO 1

1 Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, Clinical Neuroscience Centre, Zurich, Switzerland; 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Inselspital, University Hospital of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Milan, Milan, Italy


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OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on surgical revascularization techniques for flow-augmentation of the frontal areas and/or anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory in children with Moyamoya vasculopathy (MMV), to elucidate the current surgical practice and describe the outcome associated to the different techniques.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The systematic review followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched up to April 2020. Published techniques were systematically analyzed according to level of evidence, revascularization technique, opening of the interhemispheric fissure (IF), uni- or bilateral revascularization, clinical, neurocognitive, angiographic, perfusion and hemodynamic outcome.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twenty-five studies were enrolled, including 829 patients: among these, 13 patients underwent direct revascularization of ACA territories, 570 indirect revascularization and 246 patients combined revascularization. One study reached a level of evidence II (grade of recommendation B), 8 studies were level III (grade B) and 16 studies were level IV (grade C). The surgical techniques proposed in the enrolled papers were systematically described.
CONCLUSIONS: Combined techniques (grade of recommendation B) and indirect techniques (grade of recommendation C) are considered effective for revascularizing the frontal areas and/or anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory in children with MMV. While performing the revascularization, surgical risks can be reduced by avoiding the exposure of the superior sagittal sinus and opening of IF (recommendation grade C). There is not sufficient evidence to define which type of surgical technique should be preferred. Future studies are needed for a longitudinal assessment of comparable outcomes and to determine which revascularization technique for the frontal areas and/or ACA territory is optimal for this highly specific pediatric population.


KEY WORDS: Moyamoya vasculopathy; Revascularization; Pediatric; Frontal areas; Anterior cerebral artery territory

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