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Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences 2020 Feb 04

DOI: 10.23736/S0390-5616.19.04827-6


language: English

Visualization of volume of tissue activated modeling in a clinical planning system for deep brain stimulation

Barbara CARL 1, 4, Miriam BOPP 1, 3, Benjamin SAß 1, Josefine WALDTHALER 2, Lars TIMMERMANN 2, 3, Christopher NIMSKY 1, 3

1 Department of Neurosurgery, University Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2 Department of Neurology, University Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 3 Marburg Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior (MCMBB), Marburg, Germany; 4 Department of Neurosurgery, Helios Dr. Horst Schmidt Kliniken, Wiesbaden, Germany


BACKGROUND: Pathway activating models try to describe stimulation spread in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Volume of tissue activated (VTA) models are simplified model variants allowing faster and easier computation. Our study aimed to investigate, how VTA visualization can be integrated into a clinical workflow applying directional electrodes using a standard clinical DBS planning system.
METHODS: Twelve patients underwent DBS, using directional electrodes for bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in Parkinson’s disease. Preoperative 3T magnetic resonance imaging was used for automatic visualization of the STN outline, as well as for fiber tractography. Intraoperative computed tomography was used for automatic lead detection. The Guide XT software, closely integrated into the DBS planning software environment, was used for VTA calculation and visualization.
RESULTS: VTA visualization was possible in all cases. The percentage of VTA covering the STN volume ranged from 25% to 100% (mean ± standard deviation: 60% ± 25%) on the left side and from 0% to 98% (51% ± 30%) on the right side. The mean coordinate of all VTA centers was: 12.6 ± 1.2 mm lateral, 2.1 ± 1.2 mm posterior, and 2.3 ± 1.4 mm inferior in relation to the midcommissural point. Stimulation effects can be compared to the VTA visualization in relation to surrounding structures, potentially facilitating programming, which might be especially beneficial in case of suboptimal lead placement.
CONCLUSIONS: VTA visualization in a clinical planning system allows an intuitive adjustment of the stimulation parameters, supports programming, and enhances understanding of effects and side effects of DBS.

KEY WORDS: Deep brain stimulation; Deep brain stimulation coordinates; Directional electrodes; Lead detection; Volume of tissue activated

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