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Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences 2019 February;63(1):61-82

DOI: 10.23736/S0390-5616.17.04210-2

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery

Andrew A. FANOUS 1, 2, Dheerendra PRASAD 1, 2, 3, David MATHIEU 4, Andrew J. FABIANO 1, 2

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA; 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3 Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, and Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; 4 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada


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Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the use of a single high dose of radiation, stereotactically directed to an intracranial region of interest, in order to create a lesion or obliterate a preexisting one. This technology has evolved over the years into the use of multiple radiation sources oriented at a variety of angles, thus permitting the creation of various treatment target shapes. This allows for non-open surgical treatment of intracranial pathologies, which significantly decreases the risk of morbidity. The destruction of pathological tissue following radiosurgery is a stepwise process that involves a number of different stages, beginning with the necrotic stage, followed by the resorption stage, and concluding with the glial scar formation stage. There are currently a number of different delivery methods of SRS, including linear accelerators, Gamma Knife units, and charged particle methods (Bragg-peak and plateau-beam). Various intracranial lesions exhibit different responses to radiosurgery; however, most lesions of appropriate size tend to respond favorably. Radiosurgery is used today in the treatment of brain metastases, meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, sellar and suprasellar lesions, and arteriovenous malformations. SRS is widely used to treat functional conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and intractable tremor. The treatment of intracranial lesions with radiosurgery can result in undesirable effects on the adjacent normal brain, resulting in adverse radiation effects. The distinction between tumor progression and adverse radiation effects can be challenging but is aided by various imaging modalities. Treatment options for this condition include observation, corticosteroids, pentoxifylline and vitamin E, bevacizumab, laser-interstitial thermal therapy, and surgical resection.


KEY WORDS: Brain neoplasms - Radiobiology - Radiosurgery - Stereotaxic techniques

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