Home > Journals > Minerva Urology and Nephrology > Past Issues > Articles online first > Minerva Urology and Nephrology 2022 Jan 31



Publishing options
To subscribe PROMO
Submit an article
Recommend to your librarian


Publication history
Cite this article as


 Open accessopen access

Minerva Urology and Nephrology 2022 Jan 31

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-6051.22.04752-8

Copyright © 2022 THE AUTHORS

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC BY-NC 4.0 license which allows users to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon the manuscript, as long as this is not done for commercial purposes, the user gives appropriate credits to the original author(s) and the source (with a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI), provides a link to the license and indicates if changes were made.

language: English

International Alliance of Urolithiasis (IAU) guideline on percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Guohua ZENG 1, Wen ZHONG 1, Giorgio MAZZON 2, Simon CHOONG 3, Margaret PEARLE 4, Madhu AGRAWAL 5, Cesare M. SCOFFONE 6, Cristian FIORI 7, Mehmet I. GÖKCE 8, Wayne LAM 9, Kremena PETKOVA 10, Kubilay SABUNCU 11, Nariman GADZHIEV 12, Amelia PIETROPAOLO 13, Esteban EMILIANI 14, Kemal SARICA 15

1 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urology, Department of Urology, First affiliated hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; 2 Department of Urology, San Bassiano Hospital, Vicenza, Italy; 3 Institute of Urology, University College Hospital, London, UK; 4 Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 5 Department of Urology, Centre for Minimally Invasive Endourology, Global Rainbow Healthcare, Agra, India; 6 Department of Urology, Cottolengo Hospital of Torino, Torino, Italy; 7 Department of Urology, AOU San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Torino, Italy; 8 Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey; 9 Division of Urology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China; 10 Department of Urology and Nephrology, Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria; 11 Department of Urology, Karacabey State Hospital, Karacabey-Bursa, Turkey; 12 Department of Urology, Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, Russia; 13 Department of Urology,University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton, UK; 14 Department of Urology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 15 Department of Urology, Biruni University, Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey


INTRODUCTION: The International Alliance of Urolithiasis (IAU) would like to release the latest guideline on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and provide a clinical framework for surgeons peforming PCNLs.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: These recommendations were collected and appraised from a systematic review and assessment of the literature covering all aspects of PCNLs from the PubMed database between 01/01/1976 to 31/07/2021. Each generated recommendation was graded using a modified GRADE methodology. The quality of the evidence was graded using a classification system modified from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: 47 recommendations were summarized and graded, which covered the following issues, indications and contraindications, stone complexity evaluation, preoperative imagings, antibiotic strategy, management of antithrombotic therapy, anesthesia, position, puncture, tracts, dilation, lithotripsy, intraoperative evaluation of residual stones, exit strategy, postoperative imagings and stone-free status evaluation, complications.
CONCLUSIONS: The present guideline on PCNL was the first in the IAU series of urolithiasis management guidelines. The recommendations, tips and tricks across the PCNL procedures would provide adequate guidance for urologists peforming PCNLs, therefore to ensure safety and efficiency in PCNLs.

KEY WORDS: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy; Guideline; Treatment; Complication; Urolithiasis

top of page