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Minerva Urology and Nephrology 2021 Jul 15

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04454-2

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

A new model to assist decision-making of optimal antibiotics duration for treating asymptomatic bacteriuria or pyuria prior to retrograde intrarenal surgery

Zhijian ZHAO, Hongling SUN, Wei ZHU, Yang LIU, Wen ZHONG, Yongda LIU, Guohua ZENG

Department of Urology, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, Guangzhou Institute of Urology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China


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BACKGROUND: To establish a model that predicts postoperative fever and enables decision-making regarding optimal antibiotic therapy duration for asymptomatic bacteriuria or pyuria prior to retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS).
METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 667 consecutive patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria or pyuria who underwent RIRS between September 2016 and December 2019. We constructed a predictive nomogram for risk quantification of postoperative infection. A preoperative score model was used for risk stratification. The effect of antibiotic therapy duration (short-course [2-3 days] vs. long-course [≥4 days]) was evaluated.
RESULTS: Infections occurred in 113 (16.9%) patients. The incidence of fever was marginally lower in long-course group than in short-course group (15% vs. 19%, p=0.173). Hydronephrosis, stone size, multi-drug resistant bacteriuria, and degree of pyuria were used to construct a preoperative score model (the H-SMP score). Using the H-SMP score, the patients were stratified into low- and high-risk groups based on varying incidence rates of postoperative fever (11.0% vs. 29.9%, p<0.001). Significant reduction in fever occurred only among high-risk patients in the long-course group (23.5% vs. 38.0%, p=0.022), and no such reduction in postoperative fever rates occurred in low-risk patients (10.4% vs. 11.5%, p=0.712). Even after propensity score matching, the low-risk group showed no improvement in postoperative fever incidence with long-course antibiotic therapy (7.5% vs. 10.0%, p=0.419).
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the newly developed H-SMP score, we concluded that long-course antibiotics (≥4 days) recommended in high-risk patients may not bring in more benefit in low-risk patients for treating asymptomatic bacteriuria or pyuria prior to RIRS.


KEY WORDS: Asymptomatic bacteriuria; Retrograde intrarenal surgery; Kidney stones; Antibiotics; Infection

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