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Minerva Urology and Nephrology 2021 May 05

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04330-5


language: English

Oncological and functional outcomes of testis sparing surgery in small testicular mass: a systematic review

Vincenzo FAVILLA 1, Rossella CANNARELLA 2 , Antonio TUMMINARO 3, Davide DI MAURO 3, Rosita A. CONDORELLI 2, Sandro LA VIGNERA 2, Vincenzo FICARRA 1, Sebastiano CIMINO 3, Aldo E. CALOGERO 2

1 Urologic Section, Department of Human and Pediatric Pathology Gaetano Barresi, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 2 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 3 Urology Section, Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Catania, Italy


INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of testicular tumor is constantly increasing, with an estimated incidence rate of about 3-10 new cases per 100,000 males/per year. Radical orchiectomy or testis sparing surgery (TSS) are recognized therapeutic approaches in these cases. However, the risk for hypogonadism and infertility is higher with the former compared with the latter. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the oncological outcome and testicular function (endocrine and reproductive aspects) in patients who had undergone TSS for small testicular lesions.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: To accomplish this, 684 items were retrieved and screened; 24 retrospective and 2 prospective studies were selected and finally included in this systematic review.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall the TSS attempts were 1096 but TSS was definitively performed in 603 cases (55%). Frozen section examination was performed in 996 TSS attempts (22 out of the 26 studies selected) and showed a benign histology in 37-100% of cases, a malignant histology in 0-63%, and an inconclusive result in 0-16%, respectively. Five studies reported that a total of 22 patients were able to father after conservative surgery. None of these studies reported cases of hypotestosteronemia after surgery and a low prevalence (1.66%) of complications was associated with this type of surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, TSS showed to be safe and practicable if used according to the specific guidelines. It can be safely performed to treat recurrence eventually associated to local adjuvant radiotherapy when an intra-tubular neoplasia is present. Urologists can therefore consider TSS as an important means against testicular tumor in selected and well-informed patients.

KEY WORDS: Testicular tumor; Testis sparing surgery; Radical orchiectomy; Fertility; Hypogonadism

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