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Minerva Urology and Nephrology 2021 June;73(3):309-32

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04294-4


language: English

Intraoperative and postoperative surgical complications after ureteroscopy, retrograde intrarenal surgery, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review

Antonio A. GROSSO 1, 2, Francesco SESSA 1, 2, Riccardo CAMPI 1, 2 , Lorenzo VIOLA 1, 2, Paolo POLVERINO 1, 2, Alfonso CRISCI 1, 2, Matteo SALVI 1, 2, Evangelos LIATSIKOS 3, Oriol A. FEU 4, Fabrizio DI MAIDA 1, 2, Riccardo TELLINI 1, 2, Olivier TRAXER 5, 6, Andrea COCCI 1, 2, Andrea MARI 1, 2, Cristian FIORI 7, Francesco PORPIGLIA 7, Marco CARINI 1, 2, Agostino TUCCIO 1, 2, Andrea MINERVINI 1, 2

1 Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2 Unit of Oncologic Minimally-Invasive Urology and Andrology, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy; 3 Department of Urology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece; 4 Puigvert Foundation, Barcelona, Spain; 5 Service of Urology, Sorbonne University, Paris, France; 6 Tenon Hospital, Assistance-Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; 7 Department of Urology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy

INTRODUCTION: Retrograde ureteroscopy (URS), intra-renal surgery (RIRS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) represent routine interventions for the treatment of ureteral and renal stones, although at times associated with serious adverse events. Of note, the evidence on perioperative complications after these procedures remains sparse and controversial. Moreover, there is a lack of standardized reporting of adverse events using uniform systems. The aim of the present study was to systematically review of the available evidence on URS/RIRS and PCNL for the surgical treatment of urinary stone, assessing the incidence of intra- and postoperative events, classified according to the modified Clavien-Dindo scale.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the literature was performed according to PRISMA recommendations and was conducted on intra- and postoperative complications, as well as on their management, following URS, RIRS and PCNL procedures, particularly focusing on major events.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, 26 studies (13 on URS/RIRS and 11 on PCNL) met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. The highest intraoperative complication rate was 11.5% and 8.5% for RIRS and PCNL, respectively. Major complication rate following URS/RIRS and PCNL ranged between 0.3-31.7% and 2-17.1%, respectively. The most frequent adverse events were obstructive pyelonephritis or urinary leakage requiring the placement of a double J stent or a drainage. Among PCNLs series, life-threatening adverse events have also been reported, including bleeding requiring renal angioembolization and urothorax.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the inclusion of series using a standardized reporting system, the complication rate after URS/RIRS/PCNL remains extensively heterogeneous in the literature; in addition, a non-negligible proportion of studies did not characterize the adverse events nor report the actual management strategy to solve them. Future research is needed to standardize the classification and reporting of surgical complications after endourological procedures (taking into consideration the surgeon’s experience and skills), aiming to improve patient counseling and potentially the strategy for their prevention.

KEY WORDS: Intraoperative complications; Postoperative complications; Ureteroscopy; Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

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