Home > Journals > Minerva Urology and Nephrology > Past Issues > Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2020 August;72(4) > Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2020 August;72(4):427-40



Publishing options
To subscribe
Submit an article
Recommend to your librarian


Publication history
Cite this article as


REVIEW   Free accessfree

Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2020 August;72(4):427-40

DOI: 10.23736/S0393-2249.20.03704-2


language: English

The effect of additional drug therapy as metaphylaxis in patients with cystinuria: a systematic review

Indra M. MELESSEN 1, Michaël M. HENDERICKX 2 , Maria M. MERKX 3, Faridi S. van ETTEN-JAMALUDIN 4, Jaap J. HOMAN van der HEIDE 5, Guido M. KAMPHUIS 2

1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2 Department of Urology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3 Department of Pharmacy, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4 Medical Library, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 5 Department of Nephrology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

INTRODUCTION: To systematically review the effect of additional drug therapy as metaphylaxis in patients with cystinuria.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search of three databases (MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library) was performed according to the PRISMA-guidelines enclosing articles published up to May 2019. A total of 1117 articles were screened. Thirty-four publications met the inclusion criteria for this review.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Male-female ratio in the studied cohorts was 49.9% - 50.1%. The majority of studies showed a positive effect in reducing stone events and/or urinary cystine excretion. D-Penicillamine showed success in 13/14 (92%) studies, whereas Tiopronin-treatment showed a reduction in all (8/8; 100%) studies. All studies on Captopril (4/4) showed a decrease, however not all significant. The same is true for studies on Thiols in combination with Captopril (2/2). Furthermore, Tiopronin showed less side effects compared to D-penicillamine, respectively 30% and 37%. Captopril showed the least adverse events, with one event in nine patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The evidence on benefit of additional drug therapy in patients with cystinuria is scarce. All studied medications showed an effect on stone event and urinary cystine excretion, when used in addition to hyperhydration, alkalization and a diet low on methionine. Based on this systematic review, no drug can be preferred over another. An important aspect in the choice of drug is the risk of side effects. Therefore, the choice of additional drug should be personalized for every patient where the risk of side effects should be taken into consideration.

KEY WORDS: Cystinuria; Systematic review; Drug therapy; Metaphylaxis; Nephrolithiasis

top of page