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Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2018 August;70(4):347-60

DOI: 10.23736/S0393-2249.18.03059-X


language: English

Innovations in imaging modalities for recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer: a systematic review

Simone ALBISINNI 1 , Fouad AOUN 1, 2, Quentin MARCELIS 1, Claude JUNGELS 1, Walid AL-HAJJ OBEID 1, 3, Marc ZANATY 2, Andrea TUBARO 4, Thierry ROUMEGUERE 1, Cosimo DE NUNZIO 4

1 Urology Department, University Clinics of Brussels, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2 Urology Department, Hôtel Dieu de France, Université Saint Joseph, Beyrouth, Liban; 3 Urology Department, Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beyrouth, Liban; 4 Urology Department, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy

INTRODUCTION: The last decade has witnessed tremendous changes in the management of advanced and metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. In the current systematic review, we analyze novel imaging techniques in the setting of recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), exploring available data and highlighting future exams which could enter clinical practice in the upcoming years.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The National Library of Medicine Database was searched for relevant articles published between January 2012 and August 2017. A wide search was performed including the combination of following words: “Prostate” AND “Cancer” AND (“Metastatic” OR “Recurrent”) AND “imaging” AND (“MRI” OR “PET”). The selection procedure followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) principles and is presented using a PRISMA flow chart.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Novel imaging techniques, as multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whole-body MRI and Choline and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET imaging techniques are currently revolutioning the treatment planning in patients with advanced and metastatic PCa, allowing a better characterization of the disease. Multiparametric MRI performs well in the detection of local recurrences, with sensitivity rates of 67-98% and overall diagnostic accuracy of 83-93%, depending on the type of magnetic field strength (1.5 vs. 3T). Whole body MRI instead shows a high specificity (>95%) for bone metastases. PET imaging, and in particular PSMA PET/CT, showed promising results in the detection of both local and distant recurrences, even for low PSA values (<0.5 ng/mL). Sensitivity varies from 77-98% depending on PSA value and PSA velocity.
CONCLUSIONS: Whole body-MRI, NaF PET, Choline-PET/CT and PSMA PET/CT are flourishing techniques which find great application in the field of recurrent and metastatic PCa, in the effort to reduce treatment of “PSA only” and rather focus our therapies on clinical tumor entities. Standardization is urgently needed to allow adequate comparison of results and diffusion on a large scale.

KEY WORDS: Diagnostic imaging - Magnetic resonance imaging - Positron-emission tomography - Glutamate carboxypeptidase II, human - Prostatic neoplasms

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