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Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2010 March;62(1):67-80

Copyright © 2010 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Acute cardiovascular complications of hemodialysis

Coppolino G. 1, 2, 3, Lucisano G. 3, Bolignano D. 2, Buemi M. 2

1 Unità Operativa Complessa di Nefrologia e Dialisi, Azienda Ospedaliera “Pugliese-Ciaccio” Catanzaro, Italia 2 Sezione di Nefrologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Università di Messina, Messina, Italia 3 Unità Operativa Complessa di Nefrologia e Dialisi, Università “Magna Grecia” di Catanzar, Catanzaro, Italia


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In patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis the mortality rate from cardiovascular conditions is 10 to 100 fold than in general population. The higher mortality rate is due not only to the influence of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and cigarette smoking, but also to specific factors of uremic patients. Acute complications commonly take place during routine hemodialysis treatments (HD) due to unsteadiness in the cardiovascular system balance. We will review most important cardiovascular complications during HD from hypotension to ventricular hypertrophy, from arrhythmias to sudden death, and finally myocardial ischemia. A large number of structural and functional peripheral vascular and cardiac abnormalities including electrolyte imbalance, hemodynamic instability and neuro-humoral stress exert an overwork on myocardium and lead to occurring of a single cardiovascular complication but are always strictly correlated events.

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