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Minerva Surgery 2021 May 04

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5691.21.08890-0

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Management of postoperative complications during laparoscopic anterior rectal resection

Armando G. FRANCHINI MELANI 1, 2 , Luis G. CAPOCHIN ROMAGNOLO 2, 3

1 Americas Medical City, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2 Departament of Surgery, IRCAD Latin America, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil; 3 Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil


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Laparoscopic anterior resection (LAR) is currently a routine practice in specialized high-volume centers, with equivalent oncological outcomes in historical, open surgery. Appropriate pelvic dissection can be measured by the adequacy of circumferential margin (CRM) and distal margin, both are risk factors of local recurrence. Among the various operative procedures for colorectal cancer, low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer is one of the most demanding procedures because it requires resection of cancer with surrounding mesorectal tissue and reconstruction with anastomosis in the narrow pelvis while preserving the autonomic nerves of the urogenital organs particularly in the male pelvis. Low anterior resection is associated with a relatively high incidence of postoperative morbidities, including anastomotic leakage and other operative site infections, and asymptomatic patients infected with COVID-19 submitted to elective could be at higher risk which sometimes result in post operative mortality. Therefore, recognition of the incidence and risk factors of postoperative complications following low anterior resection is essential to prevent it. The importance of some risk factors such as age, nutrition status of the patient, experience of the surgeon and many other factors that influence outcome of colorectal surgery which could be modified pre operatively to prevent post operative complications. In the other hand long term post operative complications may promote tumor recurrence and decrease survival. The severity of these complications was evaluated by Clavien-Dindo classification (Table1) initiated in 1992 is based on the type of therapy needed to correct the complication. The principle of the classification is simple, reproducible, flexible, and applicable. The Clavien-Dindo Classification(1) appears reliable and may represent a compelling tool for quality assessment in surgery. Post-operative complications can also be classified according to time-line related to surgery as such, early postoperative complications can be defined where morbidity rates occurred within 30 days of the procedure (25%-32%)- (Table 2) or long-term as those that take place between the 30th post-operative day to 3 years following. The aims of this review are to provide an overview of the current literature on post operative complications of rectal surgery and to describe risk factors and strategies to prevent, treat or reduce complications.


KEY WORDS: Management; Postoperative complications; Laparoscopic anterior rectal resection

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