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Minerva Surgery 2021 October;76(5):415-22

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5691.21.08511-4


language: English

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: onset of symptoms and severity grade as a tool for choosing the optimal timing

Giuseppe PALOMBA 1 , Vincenza P. DINUZZI 1, Alfonso AMENDOLA 1, Roberto PALOMBA 2, Giovanni D. DE PALMA 1, Giovanni APREA 1

1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy; 2 Unit of General and Emergency Surgery, Ospedali Riuniti del Golfo Vesuviano, Naples, Italy

BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis is an acute inflammation of the gallbladder. It represents one-third of all surgical emergency hospital admissions and has significant socioeconomic impact. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, regardless of age, is the gold standard for this disease, but the optimal timing of surgical intervention is an open issue since the 2007 Tokyo guidelines.
METHODS: We recruited from March 2015 to June 2018, in a retrospective study, 144 patients with acute cholecystitis and treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (N.=66), operated within 72 hours and group B (N.=78), between 72 hours and 1 week after the onset of symptoms. After, the two groups were further stratified by the grade of severity of acute cholecystitis in according to the Tokyo guidelines: in group A, 39 patients were grade I and 27 grade II; in group B, 48 patients were grade I and 30 grade II.
RESULTS: The operative time was longer in group B patients versus group A. In group B, there was a greater difficulty in dissecting and detecting the Calot’s triangle, more conversions to open, a greater mean length of hospital stay and more post-operative days. In patients with grade II, especially in the group B, were greater inflammation stage, conversions to open, difficulty in the dissection of the Calot’s triangle, mean length of hospital stay and post-operative days. The operative timing within 72 hours in patients with grade I, have only advantage in the mean length of hospital stay, while in grade II, the advantages are also in the lesser difficulty in dissecting the Calot’s triangle, fewer conversions and fewer post-operative days.
CONCLUSIONS: Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis should be performed considering not only the onset of symptoms, but above all the grade of severity of AC in according with TG. Grade II, particularly, must be treated within 72 hours and by experienced surgeon.

KEY WORDS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Acute cholecystitis; Diagnosis; Signs and symptoms

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