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REVIEW  CLINICAL APPLICATION OF INDOCYANINE GREEN IN LIVER SURGERY 

Minerva Surgery 2021 June;76(3):229-34

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5691.21.08721-6

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

The role of indocyanine green cholangiography in minimally invasive surgery

Eric C. LAI , Daniel T. CHUNG, Samuel T. LO, Chung-Ngai TANG

Department of Surgery, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong, China



INTRODUCTION: Near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIFC) using indocyanine green (ICG) is increasingly used to aid in the identification of extrahepatic biliary anatomy. The use of ICG cholangiography for laparoscopic cholecystectomy is suggested to be safe and feasible. This article aimed at reviewing the dosage and timing of the intravenous administration of ICG, its efficacy and potential usage.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: MEDLINE and PubMed searches were performed using the key words “fluorescent cholangiography,” “ICG cholangiography,” “near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography” and “laparoscopic cholecystectomy” to identify relevant articles published in English during the years of 2010 to 2020. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Several factors can influence the quality of the fluorescence imaging, including the dose and timing of ICG injection, liver function, the thickness of fatty tissue and the presence of inflamed tissues due to acute pathology. Various devices tested also have a different sensitivity to the fluorescence signal. RCTs showed fluorescence cholangiography were comparable to traditional intraoperative cholangiogram in visualizing the extrahepatic biliary anatomy. However, there is still no consensus in the dosing of ICG and the time interval between ICG injection and detection of biliary fluorescence. Fluorescence cholangiography’s ability to enhance such visualization can potentially reduce bile duct injury risks and shorten the operative time. However, no valuable data for bile duct injury prevention or detection could be retrieved.
CONCLUSIONS: NIFC is demonstrated as a safe, non-irradiating technique to identify and aid in the visualization of extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with real-time NIFC enables a better visualization and identification of biliary anatomy and therefore it is potentially as a means of increasing the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Whether this translates into reducing complication rates must still be determined. The dosage and timing of the intravenous administration of ICG relative to the operative procedure still requires optimization to ensure reliable images.


KEY WORDS: Indocyanine green; Cholangiography; Minimally invasive surgical procedures

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