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Minerva Chirurgica 2019 April;74(2):137-45

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4733.18.07745-3


language: English

Not all diverticulites are colonic: small bowel diverticulitis - A systematic review

Belinda DE SIMONE 1 , Laura ALBERICI 1, Luca ANSALONI 2, Massimo SARTELLI 3, Federico COCCOLINI 2, Fausto CATENA 1

1 Department of Emergency and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy; 2 Department of General and Emergency Surgery, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy; 3 Department of Emergency and General Surgery, General Hospital of Macerata, Macerata, Italy

INTRODUCTION: Small bowel non-Meckelian diverticulitis (SBNMD) is not so an uncommon cause of admission in departments of emergency surgery. Our aim is to highlight signs and symptoms for early diagnosis and report proper surgical treatments.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The systematic review protocol was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P).
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. A total of 527 patients diagnosed with SBNMD were analyzed: there were 159 (30%) cases of diverticular bleeding, 125 (23%) cases of perforated SBNMD, 91 (17.26%) cases of intestinal obstruction, 79 (14.9%) cases of non-complicated diverticulitis, and 36 (6.8%) cases of ileal diverticulosis. Among bleeding patients, endoscopy procedures were performed in 51 (32%) cases. Surgery was necessary in 77/159 (48.4%) cases. Medical treatment was sufficient in 15/159 (9.4%) cases. In case of perforation, 93/125 (74.4%) patients were submitted to surgery, with open technique in 78/93 (83.8%) patients, by laparoscopy in 2/93 (2.1%) with conversion rate of 1.07%. Eight of 125 (6.4%) cases received medical treatment. In case of obstruction, non-operative management was effective in 3/91 (3.2%) cases. Surgery was performed in 74/91 (78%) cases, with open technique in 64/91 (86.4%) cases, by laparoscopy in 3/74 (4%), with one patient converted in laparotomy.
CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of SBNMD is often made at emergency surgical exploration with high morbidity and mortality rate. SBNMD must be considered in elderly patients presenting with abdominal pain. A multidisciplinary approach to the patient (involving a radiologist, a surgeon, and a gastroenterologist) is necessary to make an early diagnosis. In case of complicated SBNMD, the emergency surgeon must choose the right surgical treatment.

KEY WORDS: Emergency medicine - Jejunum - Diverticulitis - Acute abdomen - Ileum

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