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Minerva Chirurgica 2013 December;68(6):599-612


language: English

Intraperitoneal administration of local anesthetics in laparoscopic surgery: pharmacological, anatomical, physiological and pathophysiological considerations

Ioannidis O. 1, Anastasilakis C. D. 2, Varnalidis I. 3, Paraskevas G. 4, Malakozis S. G. 1, Gatzos S. 1, Ntoumpara M. 1, Tsigkriki L. 1, Papapostolou D. 1, Makrantonakis A. 1, Papadopoulou A. 1, Makrantonakis N. 1

1 First Surgical Department General Regional Hospital ‘George Papanikolaou’. Thessaloniki, Greece; 2 Department of Pharmacology 424 General Military Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3 Department of Plastic Surgery General Regional Hospital “George Papanikolaou”, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4 Department of Anatomy, Medical School Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki, Greece


Local anesthetics, because of their ability to cause a reversible blockade in transmission of impulses along the central and peripheral neural pathways are used to induce analgesia. In laparoscopic surgery procedures, the reduction of postoperative pain is one of the biggest benefits compared with open surgery. However, the pain is not completely absent after laparoscopic surgery. The intraperitoneal administration of local anesthetic intraoperatively in laparoscopic surgery can reduce the intensity of postoperative pain. This method has been in use since the early nineties and seems to be effective. The purpose of this review is to assess the pharmacology of local anesthetics, the anatomy and physiology of the peritoneum, the physiology of preemptive analgesia, and the pathophysiology of pain and review the data from the use of this method so as to make it more effective. For the safest and longest intraperitoneal administration of local anesthetics the following significant points must be taken into consideration: administration of local anesthetic should be done at the beginning, in short-term intervention and both at the beginning and end of surgery for longer-term intervention, administration of local anesthetic should be combined with a vasoconstrictor, usage of solutions of small volume and high concentration of local anesthetic, coverage of the greatest possible surface of the parietal peritoneum (by using a nebulizer), adherence to a waiting period of 10-15 minutes after administration of local anesthetic and usage of a safe and longer duration local anesthetic like levobupivacaine.

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