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Minerva Chirurgica 2012 February;67(1):49-57


language: English

Factors affecting long-term outcomes after thromboembolectomy for acute lower limb ischemia

Zaraca F. 1, Ponzoni A. 2, Sbraga P. 1, Ebner J. A. 1, Giovannetti R. 1-3, Ebner H. 1

1 Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Regional Hospital Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy; 2 ICT Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Padua, Italy; 3 “Tor Vergata” University, Rome, Italy


AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze factors influencing outcomes of surgical management for lower limb acute ischemia.
METHODS:A retrospective analysis of 490 thromboembolectomies performed in 468 patients was conducted. Perioperative and follow-up results were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analysis of clinical variables and patients’ characteristics for the risk of reocclusion, amputation and mortality at 2 years were performed. Statistical significance was defined as a P value <0.05.
RESULTS: Cumulative reocclusion, amputation and mortality rates at 24 months were 22.6%, 14.3% and 42.8%, respectively. At univariate analysis, the factors associated with increased 2-year reocclusion rate were severity of clinical presentation, current smoking habit, arterial thrombosis rather than embolism, atrial fibrillation and the avoidance of completion angiography. All these factors except clinical presentation maintained significance at multivariate analysis. Factors associated with increased 2-year amputation rate at univariate analysis included severity of clinical presentation, smoke, arterial thrombosis, atrial fibrillation and valvulopathy. All these factors except clinical presentation and valvular defects maintained significance at multivariate analysis. Factors associated with increased 2-year mortality rate at univariate analysis included age >80 years, arterial thrombosis, history of peripheral arterial disease and antiplatelet drugs. The same factors, except antiplatelet treatment, were found to be significant at multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: Surgical intervention for lower limb ischemia is associated with high 2-year mortality but offers good 2-year limb salvage. The pattern of risk factors for reocclusion and amputation rates is quite different from those affecting mortality. Only thrombotic aetiology is a significant risk factor for all the three outcomes.

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