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Minerva Stomatologica 2019 April;68(2):74-83

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4970.19.04211-0

Copyright © 2019 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Condylar dysfunctional remodeling and recortication: a case-control study

Roberto CONTE, Filippo FORIN VALVECCHI, Antonio L. GRACCO, Giovanni BRUNO, Alberto DE STEFANI

Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Padua, Italy



BACKGROUND: Temporo-mandibular disorders (TMD) is a collective term comprehending different clinical issues involving masticatory muscles, temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) and other associated structures. TMD diagnosis is not made for its pathogenesis or etiology, but mainly on clinical symptoms. Primary dysfunction develops mostly on four factors: individual predisposition, high psychomotor activity (due to stress or parafunction), occlusal instability and low or absent tissue adaptation capability. On the other hand, secondary disorders can be caused by hereditary or congenital diseases, rheumatic inflammatory diseases, autoimmune and tumoral diseases. During their function, the condyles undergo a structural adaptive and physiological remodeling, but when mechanical stress exceeds adaptive capability, dysfunctional remodeling phenomena may occur. It is characterized by significant condylar morphological modifications at the level of the head of the condyle (smaller condyle), break of cortical integrity and reduced mandibular ramus height with subsequent mandibular retrusion and articular function alteration. The aim of this study is to compare condylar recortication amount, and pain reduction after two different therapeutic protocols.
METHODS: This is a case-control study. Twenty TMD patients were chosen and each of them underwent a documentation protocol including extraoral and intraoral photographs, dental casts, casts mounting on the articulator to evaluate CPI (CO-CR discrepancy index) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the mandibular condyles taken in closed mouth position. For the radiographic evaluation, a Planmeca ProMax 3D Mid system was utilized with an acquiring volume of 80×80 mm dimension, exposition 90 kV, 10.0 mA, 12 seconds with a DAP (Dose Area Product) of 1094 mGy·cm2 for each condyle. The acquired volume was elaborated by the Planmeca Romexis software v. 3.2.0.R and TMJ module. Seven coronal cuts and 10 sagittal cuts were performed on the head of the condyle to highlight the amount of cortication, before and after the application of two different therapeutic protocols. Protocol number 1 (N.=10 patients) included the exclusive use of a splint, while protocol number 2 (N.=10 patients) included the use of a splint associated with pharmacological therapy (NSAIDs, antioxidant, omega 3). The revaluation was performed on asymptomatic patient after a period of 6-8 months. The pain for each patient was assessed by a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) from 0 to 10, 0 meaning no pain and 10 the worst pain ever felt. The VAS was evaluated after 10 days from the beginning of the treatment, after 3 months and after 8 months at the end of the treatment. Statistical analyses were carried using a χ2 test (P value <0.05).
RESULTS: No significant differences in the amount of cortication were found in the radiographic revaluation between the two different therapeutic protocols, even though it was noticed that the use of medicaments brought to a resolution of the symptoms in a shorter period of time (P=0.00001 after 10 days; P=0.0251 after 3 months).
CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, pharmacological protocol in the therapy of TMD does not seem to affect condylar cortication. Medicaments although seem to accelerate the disappearance of clinic symptomatology, but more researches are needed to valid these findings.


KEY WORDS: Temporomandibular joint disorders - Osteoarthritis - Mandibular condyle - Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents - Piroxicam

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