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Minerva Stomatologica 2018 August;67(4):172-8

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4970.18.04025-6

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Evaluation of stress biomarkers and electrolytes in saliva of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

Annicele SILVA ANDRADE 1, Mariana MARCON SZYMANSKI 1, Lina N. HASHIZUME 2, Karina SANTOS MUNDSTOCK 3, Jéferson FERRAZ GOULARTE 1, Gustavo HAUBER GAMEIRO 1

1 Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2 Department of Conservative Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; 3 Department of Surgery and Orthopedics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil


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BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that treatment with orthodontic appliances evokes significant functional limitations and emotional stress, which can be detected by salivary biomarkers.
METHODS: Twenty subjects (10 men and 10 women) who underwent orthodontic treatment were included in this prospective study. Saliva was sampled for detection of alpha-amylase activity and cortisol levels at three different times: before bracket placement (T0), 24 hours after archwire placement (T1), and 30 days after archwire placement (T2). The saliva electrolytes concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were also evaluated. Moreover, the possible functional limitations of the appliances were evaluated by a masticatory performance test and pain experience registration. All variables were compared with those in a control group with normal occlusion.
RESULTS: The orthodontic patients exhibited a significant increase in emotional stress as detected by the alpha-amylase activity at T1, the period in which patients reported the higher values of pain and exhibited the lower masticatory performance indices. The basal salivary cortisol was not affect by the treatment and the main change detected in electrolyte concentration was a sodium reduction, when these patients were compared to controls.
CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that orthodontic patients are under emotional stress only during the period of higher pain experience, which could also disrupt the masticatory performance. However, these alterations were not correlated with a single measurement of stress-related biomarkers in saliva, suggesting that these solitary endocrine measurements are not adequate to predict the temporary pain and masticatory limitation experimented by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.


KEY WORDS: Psychological stress - Pain - Orthodontics

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