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Minerva Stomatologica 2017 August;66(4):157-62

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4970.17.04061-4


language: English

Volatile sulphur compounds in exhaled air of dental students smoking the waterpipe: a nested case control study

Saud F. AL-HUMAIDI 1, Najla S. DAR-ODEH 1, 2, Ahmad ALNAZZAWI 1, Ahmad KUTKUT 3, Malik HUDIEB 4, Osama ABU-HAMMAD 1, 2

1 Taibah University Dental College and Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia; 2 Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; 3 College of Dentistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; 4 Faculty of Dentistry, Jordan University for Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan


BACKGROUND: This study aims at investigating a potential adverse effect that waterpipe tobacco smoking may cause by comparing levels of volatile sulphur compounds in exhaled air of male dental students who smoke the waterpipe with those who do not smoke.
METHODS: Dental students were categorized into waterpipe smokers and non-smokers. Volatile sulphur compounds were measured using a halimeter following the completion of questionnaire on smoking and oral hygiene habits and self-perceived halitosis. Statistics were carried out using ANOVA and relevant post hoc tests, associations were investigated using cross tabulation with the χ2 test.
RESULTS: Results showed significantly higher levels of volatile sulphur compounds in: waterpipe smokers who smoke at least once a month when compared with non-smokers regardless their oral hygiene habits; subjects who do not brush their teeth; and subjects who self-perceive halitosis. There were no significant differences in these levels for similar groups on the basis of: use of floss, or use of mouth wash.
CONCLUSIONS: It seems that waterpipe tobacco smoking results in increased volatile sulphur compounds levels in exhaled air. Oral hygiene practices like the use of tooth brush, dental floss, and mouth wash also seem to result in lower levels.

KEY WORDS: Halitosis - Narghile - Oral hygiene - Waterpipe tobacco smoking - Volatile sulphur compounds

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