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Minerva Pediatrics 2021 Jul 21

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5276.21.06530-7


language: English

Type 2 diabetes in pediatrics

Elena FORNARI 1, Fabrizio BARBETTI 2, Dario IAFUSCO 3, Fortunato LOMBARDO 4, Emanuele MIRAGLIA DEL GIUDICE 5, Ivana RABBONE 6, Enza MOZZILLO 7

1 Section of Pediatric Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Surgery, Dentistry, Pediatrics and Gynecology, University and Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata of Verona, Verona, Italy; 2 Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 3 Department of Pediatrics, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy; 4 Department of Human Pathology in Adult and Developmental Age, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 5 Department of the Woman, of the Child, of General and Specialized Surgery, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy; 6 Division of Paediatrics, Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy; 7 Regional Center of Pediatric Diabetes, Department of Translational Medical Science, Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adolescents has become an increasing health concern throughout the world and its prevention and screening should be implemented in pediatric care. As clinical features at presentation, in some cases can be similar to type 1 diabetes and family history can be in favour of a monogenic form of diabetes, it is pivotal for physicians to be aware of youth-onset T2D specificities to ensure an accurate diagnosis. The global increase of overweight and obesity can complicate the diagnostic process and makes it essential to apply a systematic approach to each new diagnosis. Microvascular complications may be present at the time of diagnosis and chronic complications are frequent and need to be screened regularly. Regular screening of comorbidities should also be performed. Childhood T2D should be followed up by pediatric diabetes units to avoid diagnostic errors and delay in care. A multidisciplinary approach, by an experienced team, is pivotal to provide treatment options targeting the unique needs of pediatric patients. Treatment programs must include the whole family and address all the aspects of the care (lifestyle, pharmacological therapy, psychological aspects, complications and comorbidities). An organized process of transition to adult care is essential.

KEY WORDS: Type 2 diabetes; Pediatrics; Child; Adolescent; Epidemiology; Prevention; Diagnosis; Treatment; Comorbidities; Complications

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