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Minerva Pediatrics 2021 May 31

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5276.21.06211-X


language: English

Risk factors and early renal effects of environmental exposure to the trace elements in Moroccan adolescents

Jawhar LAAMECH 1, 2, 3 , Abdelkader J. EL HANGOUCHE 4, Youssra AMEKRAN 4, Adil NAJDI 5, Abdenbi BEN DRISS 2, El K. BEN DRISS 2, Adnane LOUAJRI 2, Badiaa LYOUSSI 3

1 Laboratory of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tangier, Morocco; 2 Laboratory of Applied Biology and Pathology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco; 3 Laboratory of Physiology, Pharmacology and Environmental Health, Faculty of Sciences DM, USMBA University, Fez, Morocco; 4 Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tangier, Morocco; 5 Department of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tangier, Morocco


BACKGROUND: In Morocco, the use of leaded-gasoline is still common even after its ban in 2011, and other sources of contamination by traces elements are not regulated. We aimed to assess blood and urinary cadmium, blood lead, and total blood mercury levels in Moroccan adolescents and to identify determinants and early renal effects of exposure.
METHODS: The study included 149 school adolescents (12 to 18 years), from urban, industrial, and rural areas in Fez city (north of Morocco). Risk factors were investigated by interviews and questionnaires. Internal doses and early renal effects were evaluated by analyzing blood and urinary samples.
RESULTS: The mean of blood lead levels (BLLs) in all adolescents was 47.81μg/l with no difference between boys and girls. Adolescents from the urban area had the highest BLLs mean. The means of blood cadmium levels (BCLs) and urinary cadmium levels (UCLs) were 0.29μg/l and 0.45μg/l respectively, with no differences between living areas or according to sex. The total blood mercury levels (BMLs) mean was 0.52 μg/l. BMLs mean was higher in the industrial area and among boys. This can be associated to the frequency of fish intake, the use of dental amalgams fillings, and the consumption of chewing gum. Rates of early renal effects markers were low, not correlated to the metals, and may indicate that renal effects of this environmental exposure could be limited.
CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need for the limitation of trace elements’ sources, particularly the strict application of the laws concerning leaded-petrol prohibition.

KEY WORDS: Adolescents; Trace elements; Early renal effects; Environmental exposure; Risk factors

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