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Minerva Pediatrica 2019 August;71(4):349-57

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4946.17.04284-0


language: English

Ventilator associated pneumonia due to carbapenem resistant microorganisms in children

Soner S. KARA 1 , Meltem POLAT 1, Anil TAPISIZ 1, Gokhan KALKAN 2, Hatice SIMSEK 3, Hasan TEZER 1

1 Unit of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Medical Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey; 2 Unit of Pediatric Intensive Care, Medical Faculty, Gazi University Ankara, Turkey; 3 Infection Control Nurse, Medical Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey


BACKGROUND: Infections due to carbapenem resistant pathogens have become a major health threat especially for hospitalized patients. Acinetobacter baumanii (AB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are important pathogens causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with a trend of high resistance to carbapenems. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors for VAP due to carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumanii (CRAB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) in children.
METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, an active, prospective observational study was conducted in Gazi University Hospital. Patients from Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), between 1 month and 12 years of age with VAP due to AB and PA were included.
RESULTS: During this period, 74 children experienced 126 VAP episodes due to Acinetobacter baumanii (N.=58) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (N.=68). Among these, 93.1% (N.=54) of AB and 51.5% (N.=35) of PA were carbapenem resistant. In univariate analysis, length of stay in PICU until the diagnosis of VAP, presence of central venous catheters, prior use of cefepime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, and teicoplanin were associated with VAP due to CRPA (P=0.02, P=0.02, P=0.006, P=0.01, P=0.001, and P=0.009 respectively). Significant association was not found between the development of VAP due to CRAB and the investigated risk factors. Regression analyses revealed previous use of cefepime (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 0.016-0.595, P=0.039) and colistin (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 0.061-0.789, P=0.023) to be independently associated with VAP due to CRPA.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that broad spectrum antibiotic usage was the most important risk factor for the development of VAP due to CRPA.

KEY WORDS: Acinetobacter baumanii; Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae; Child; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pneumonia, ventilator-associated

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