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Minerva Pediatrica 2018 December;70(6):513-8

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4946.16.04630-2

Copyright © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Prevention of syncytial respiratory virus infection with palivizumab: descriptive and comparative analysis after 12 years of use

Eduardo NARBONA-LOPEZ 1, José UBEROS 1 , Ana CHECA-ROS 1, Rocio RODRIGUEZ-BELMONTE 2, Antonio MUÑOZ-HOYOS 1

1 Unit of Clinical Pediatrics, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada, Spain; 2 St Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK



BACKGROUND: The use of palivizumab has been recommended to prevent syncytial respiratory virus (SRV) infection in vulnerable children.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of hospital admissions for bronchiolitis from 2000 to 2012 in the context of a prevention study with palivizumab in at-risk newborns.
RESULTS: A total of 952 children (59.5% males) were admitted due to bronchiolitis. Admissions occurred in younger children in the SRV+ cases compared to the SRV- cases (P<0.001). Additionally, 641 children were treated with Palivizumab at our service. Sixty of these children (9.8%) were admitted due to bronchiolitis and SRV was detected in 22 of them (3.4%). Fifty (7.8%) had underlying diseases, 6 (0.9%) presented with a history of perinatal infection and 20 (3.12%) had been part of a multiple birth. The treated children with some additional risk factor presented a greater risk of admission due to bronchiolitis (OR=1.99, P=0.045); however, this was not observed for admissions due to SRV (P=0.945).
CONCLUSIONS: Children treated with Palivizumab showed a lower rate of SRV infection, despite having more risk factors associated with a higher risk of infection or complications.


KEY WORDS: Palivizumab - Respiratory syncytial virus infections - Child - Prevention and control - Antibiotic prophylaxis - Bronchiolitis

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