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Minerva Pediatrica 2017 December;69(6):513-30

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4946.17.05112-X


language: English

Unmet needs in children with diabetes: the role of basal insulin

Stefano TUMINI 1 , Silvia CARINCI 2

1 Department of Pediatrics, G. d’Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy; 2 Department of Maternal and Child Health, Pescara Hospital, Pescara, Italy


The goal of insulin therapy in people affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus consists in achieving an optimal metabolic control and so HbA1c levels below 7.5%, according to the conclusions of relevant scientific studies. In any case it seems that this target is far from being achieved, mostly in the pediatric population. However, many important pharmacological, technological and cultural milestones have been placed both in therapy and management of insulin-dependent diabetes even if the gap between growing knowledge in these fields and its application in daily clinical practice appears still too wide. A fundamental component of these advancements concerns the design of new insulin basal analogues; molecules used to realize a basal-bolus model of therapy with MDI scheme. Degludec insulin has been recently approved for the pediatric utilization (aged 1 to 17 years). A registration trial for pediatric population (aged 6 to 17 years) is in progress for glargine U-300 insulin. These two insulin types have different biochemical and pharmacological properties and they represent two different ways to achieve the ideal basal analogue. Insulin degludec and insulin glargine U-300 are the newest basal analogues and each of them has proper pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. Their characteristics represent an effort to create the ideal solution. The aim of this review is to summarize the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of these new insulins, to list the most significant scientific findings regarding their pharmacology as well as clinical uses, with particular reference to the pediatric population in order to declare them to clinical experience and to report data on an initial experience with these analogues, especially with degludec insulin. Once again, evolution goes through the specialized training of the staff involved in the care of the diabetic patient and the constant education of the latter.

KEY WORDS: Insulin degludec - Long-acting insulin - Insulin glargine - Child - Type 1 diabetes mellitus - Hypoglycemia

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